Weather Vocabulary #2
data - information (plural; singular = datum)
hemisphere - half of a sphere; the Earth has four hemispheres: northern, southern, eastern, western
equator - Imaginary, horizontal line around the middle of the Earth
latitude - the distance north or south of the Equator
longitude - the distance west or east of the Prime Meridian
angle of incidence - angle the sunlight hits the Earth (more intensity = warmer); sometimes called angle of insolation
direct sunlight - Sun rays that strike the Earth in a straight line (most direct, intense rays = Equator)
indirect sunlight - Sun rays that strike the Earth at an angle (most indirect, least intense rays = north and south pole
radiation - transfer of thermal energy by electromagnetic waves through places with or without matter (examples: light bulb, campfire, fireplace, microwave, Sunlight traveling through space)
convection - transfer of thermal energy by liquids or gases (examples by liquids: hotter at surface of a swimming pool, cup of soup, or boiling water on stove), (examples by gases: hot air balloon, lower floors being cooler than top floors in a building).
convection current - a continual cycle of heat rising, cooling, sinking, and replacing rising heat. (examples by liquids: gulf stream, El Nino/La Nina), (examples by gases: jet stream, sea breeze, land breeze)
conduction - transfer of thermal energy between things that are touching
(examples of conduction: touching the handle of a hot metal pot, electrical circuit, ice in water), (examples of insulation: rubber surrounding electrical wires, insulation inside walls).